Essential amino acid. One of the three BCAA’s. It’s needed for muscle
metabolism, tissue repair, and the maintenance of proper nitrogen
balance. Found in high concentrations in muscle tissue.
Vastus Lateralis: The large, outer sweep portion of the quadriceps muscle complex.
Vastus Medialis: Teardrop portion of the quadriceps muscle, just above the knee. When developed, it appears to be a second knee.
V-Taper: The classic bodybuilding aesthetic which refers to wide lats protruding from a tiny waist leading to broad shoulders.
Vascular: Veiny muscularity displayed via a lack of body fat and fluids.
Vinpocetine: Found in the
leaves of Vinca minor (lesser periwinkle) plant. It facilitates
cerebral metabolism by improving blood flow to the brain, boosting ATP
production, and increasing utilization of glucose and oxygen by
neurons. Used as a cerebral vasodilator for enhancing mental alertness,
it increases blood flow to the brain and improves its oxygenation.
Fat-soluble vitamin. An antioxidant that is required for the
maintenance and repair of skin tissue. A deficiency of Vitamin A can
cause dry hair and skin, night blindness, frequent colds, other
respiratory infections, and skin disorders, including acne.
Water-soluble vitamin. An antioxidant required for at least 300
metabolic processes in the body including tissue growth and repair,
adrenal gland function, acts as an immune booster and also helps in
producing anti-stress hormones. Deficiencies can cause poor wound
healing, edema, extreme weakness, and increase susceptibility to
Vitamin D: Fat-soluble vitamin. Has
the unique property of both a vitamin and a hormone. It is required for
growth and maintenance of bones and teeth. Deficiency can lead to poor
calcium and phosphorous absorption, which can lead to brittle bones.
Fat-soluble vitamin. Important in the prevention of cardiovascular
disease, improves circulation, necessary for tissue repair, promotes
blood clotting, reduces scaring and reduces blood pressure. Also acts
as antioxidant by preventing cell damage and inhibiting free radical
production. Deficiencies can result in free radical damage to cells and
Volume: The amount of sets and
reps that one performs over the course of a workout. The benefits of
which were debated in the classic Mentzer (low volume) vs.
Schwarzenegger (high volume) argument.